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Body/Mind/Spirit: Toward a Biopsychosocial-Spiritual Model of Health

BooksReferences and Other Resources

General

American Holistic Nurses Association (AHNA). Founded in 1981, the AHNA “supports the concepts of holism: a state of harmony among body, mind, emotions, and spirit within an ever-changing environment.”

American Journal of Health Promotion. In 1986, the American Journal of Health Promotion became the first peer reviewed journal devoted to health promotion. It defined optimal health as a five-fold balance of “physical, emotional, social, spiritual, and intellectual health.”

Astrow, A., Pulchalski, C., and Sulmasy, D. (2001). Religion, Spirituality, and Health Care: Social, Ethical, and Practical Considerations. American Journal of Medicine. 110:283-287.

Blanch, A. (2007). Integrating Religion and Spirituality in Mental Health: The Promise and the Challenge. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal. 20(4):251-260.

Canda, E. and Furman, L. (1999). Spiritual Diversity in Social Work Practice. New York: Free Press.

Carson, V. (1989). Spiritual Dimensions of Nursing Practice. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co.

Clark, J. (1994). Should Social Work Education Address Religious Issues? No! Journal of Social Work Education. 30:11-16.

Delbanco, T. (1991). Enriching the Doctor-Patient Relationship by Inviting the Patient’s Perspective. Annals of Internal Medicine. 116:414-418.

Fallot, R. Spirituality and Religion in Recovery: Some Current Issues. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal. 30(4):261-270.

Garrison, A. (2006). Connection Between Religion and Health is a Complicated Issue. American Family Physician. 74(10):1684. (November 15) (Reply to Weaver and Koenig 2006).

Hodge, D. (2006). A Template for Spiritual Assessment: A Review of the JCAHO Requirements and Guidelines for Implementation. Social Work. 51(4):317-326.

Hufford, D. An Analysis of the Field of Spirituality, Religion, and Health.

Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO). Spiritual Assessment.

Koenig, H. (2004). Religion, Spirituality, and Medicine: Research Findings and Implications for Clinical Practice. Southern Medical Journal. 97(12)1194-1200.

Koenig, H. (2002). A Commentary: The Role of Religion and Spirituality at the End of Life. The Gerontologist. 42(Special Issue III):20-23.

Koenig, H., McCullough, M., and Larson, D. (2001). Handbook of Religion and Health. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Larimore, W., Parker, M., and Crowther, M. (2002). Should Clinicians Incorporate Positive Spirituality in Their Practices? What Does the Evidence Say? Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 24:69-73.

Pellegrino, E. and Thomasma, D. (1988). For the Patient’s Good: The Restoration of Beneficence in Health Care. New York: Oxford University Press.

Post, S., Puchalski, C., and Larson, D. (2000). Physicians and Patient Spirituality: Professional Boundaries, Competency, and Ethics. Annals of Internal Medicine. 132(7): 578-583. (April 4).

Sahlein, J. (2002). When Religion Enters the Dialogue: A Guide for Practitioners. Clinical Social Work Journal. 30:381-401.

Sloan, R., Bagiella, E., and Powell, T. (1999). Religion, Spirituality, and Medicine. Lancet. 353(9153):664-667.

Sulmasy, D. (2002) A Biopsychosocial-Spiritual Model for the Care of Patients at the End of Life. The Gerontologist. 42, Special Issue III, 24-33.

Tinley, S. and Kinney, A. (2007). Three Philosophical Approaches to the Study of Religion. Advances in Nursing Science. 30(1):71-80.

Vader, J-P. (2006). Spiritual Health: The Next Frontier. European Journal of Public Health. 16(5):457 (Editorial).

Weaver, A. and Koenig, H. (2006) Religion, Spirituality, and Their Relevance to Medicine: An Update. American Family Physician. 73(8):1336-1337. (April 15).

References and Resources for Definitions of Spirituality and Religion

Astrow, A., Pulchalski, C., and Sulmasy, D. (2001). Religion, Spirituality, and Health Care: Social, Ethical, and Practical Considerations. American Journal of Medicine. 110:283-287.

Bown, J. and Williams, S. (1993) Spirituality in Nursing: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Advances in health and Nursing Care. 2(4):41-66.

Coles, R. (1990). The Spirituality of Children. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin Co.

Davies, B., Brenner, P, Orloff, S., Sumner, L., and Worden, W. (2002) Addressing Spirituality in Pediatric Hospice and Palliative Care. Journal of Palliative Care. 18: 59-67.

Kaiser, L. (2000). “Spirituality and the Physician Executive: Reconciling the Inner Self and the Business of Health Care. The Physician Executive. 26(2). March/April.

Mohr, W. (2006). Spiritual Issues in Psychiatric Care. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care. 42(3):174-183.

Murray, R. and Zentner, J. (1989). Nursing Concepts for Health Promotion. London: Prentice-Hall.

Speck, P. (1998). The Meaning of Spirituality in Illness. In The Spiritual Challenge of Healthcare. M.Cobb and V. Robshaw (eds.). London: Churchill Livingstone.

Wolff, T. (2008). “Spirituality and Social Change: Appreciation, Acceptance, Compassion, and Interdependence in Our Community Work.” A Newsletter from Tom Wolff and Associates. Spring.

References and Resources for Definitions of Health and Sickness

Bok, S. Rethinking the WHO Definition of Health. Harvard Center for Population and Development. Harvard School of Public Health. Working Paper Series. 14(7). (October)

Fabrega, H, Jr. (1974). Disease and Social Behavior: An Interdisciplinary Perspective. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Helman, C. (1990). Culture, Health, and Illness. London: Wright.

Kleinman, A. (1978). Concepts and a Model for the Comparison of Medical Systems as Cultural Systems. Social Science and Medicine. 12(2B):85-93.

Kleinman, A. (1973). Toward a Comparative Study of Medical Systems: An Integrated Approach the Study of the Relationship of Medicine and Culture. Science, Medicine, and Man. 1:55-65.

Maloof, P. (1991). Sickness and Health in Society. Concilium. (April).

Norberg-Hodge, H. (1992). Ancient Futures: Learning from Ladakh. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books.

Sulmasy, D. (2002). A Biopsychosocial-Spiritual Model for the Care of Patients at the End of Life. The Gerontologist. 42, Special Issue III, 24-33.

World Health Organization. (1946). Constitution of the World Health Organization. (Article 80) Geneva.

U Than Sein. Constitution of the World Health Organization and Its Evolution. Regional Health Forum; 6:(1)

References and Resources for International and Domestic Documents

Bangkok Charter for Health Promotion in a Globalized World. (2005).

Bok, S. Rethinking the WHO Definition of Health. Harvard Center for Population and Development. Harvard School of Public Health. Working Paper Series. 14(7). (October)

Hufford, D. An Analysis of the Field of Spirituality, Religion, and Health.

Koenig, H., McCullough, M., and Larson, D. (2001). Handbook of Religion and Health. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Sustainable Development. Protecting and Promoting Human Health. (Agenda 21, Chapter 6.23).

UN World Summit for Social Development. Copenhagen Declaration on Social Development.

World Health Organization. (1946). Constitution of the World Health Organization. (Article 80) Geneva.

Vader, J-P. (2006). Spiritual Health: The Next Frontier. European Journal of Public Health. 16(5):457 (Editorial).

References and Resources for Biopsychosocial-Spiritual Model

D’Souza, R. (2007). The Importance of Spirituality in Medicine and Its Application to Clinical Practice. Medical Journal of Australia. 186(10):S57-S59). (May 21).

Fadiman, A. (1997). The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down: A Hmong Child, Her American Doctors, and the Collision of Two Cultures. New York:Noonday Press.

Gordon, J. (2005). Medical Humanities: To Cure Sometimes, to Relieve Often, to Comfort Always. Medical journal of Australia. 182:5-8.

Hufford, D. An Analysis of the Field of Spirituality, Religion, and Health.

Koenig, H. (2004). Religion, Spirituality, and Medicine: Research Findings and Implications for Clinical Practice. Southern Medical Journal. 97(12)1194-1200.

Koenig, H. (2001a). Religion and Medicine IV: Religion, Physical Health, and Clinical Interpretations. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine. 31(3):321-336.

Koenig, H. (2001b). Religion and Medicine III: Developing a Theoretical Model. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine. 31(2):199-216.

Koenig, H. (2001c). Religion and Medicine II: Religion, Mental Health, and Related Behaviors. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine. 31(1):97-109.

Koenig, H. (2000). Religion and Medicine I: Historical Background and Reasons for Separation. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine. 30(4):385-398.

Koenig, H., McCullough, M., and Larson, D. (2001). Handbook of Religion and Health. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Koenig, H. et al. (1999). Religion, Spirituality, and Medicine: A Rebuttal to Skeptics. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine. 29(2)::123-131.

McDonough-Means, S., Kreitzer, M., and Bell, I. (2004). Fostering a Healing Presence and Investigating Its Mediators. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 10(supplement 1):S25-S41.

Sloan, R. et al. (2000). Should Physicians Prescribe Religious Activities? New England Journal of Medicine. 342(25):1913-1916. (June 22).

References and Resources for Spirituality of Children

Barnes, L., Plotnikoff, G, Fox, K., and Pendleton, S. (2000). Spirituality, Religion, and Pediatrics: Intersecting Worlds of Healing. Pediatrics. 104(6):899-908. (October).

Carson, V. (1989b). Spiritual Developments Across the Life Span. In Carson, V. (Ed.). Spiritual Dimensions of Nursing Practice. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co.

Coles, R. (1990). The Spirituality of Children. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin Co.

Davies, B., Brenner, P, Orloff, S., Sumner, L., and Worden, W. (2002). Addressing Spirituality in Pediatric Hospice and Palliative Care. Journal of Palliative Care. 18: 59-67.

Donnelly, J. et al. (2005). The Needs of Children with Life-limiting Conditions: A Healthcare-Provider-Based Model. American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care. 22(4):259-267. (July-August).

Feudtner, C., Haney, J., and Dimmers, M. (2003). Spiritual Care Needs of Hospitalized Children and Their Families: A National Survey of Pastoral Care Providers’ Perceptions. Pediatrics. 111(1):e67-e72.

Foundation for Child Development. (2008). Racial-Ethnic Inequality in Child Well-Being from 1985-2004: Gaps Narrowing, but Persist. (January 31).

Heilferty, C. (2004). Spiritual Development of the Dying Child: The Pediatric Nurse Practitioner’s Role. Journal of Pediatric Health Care. 18(6):271-275.

Kloosterhouse, V. and Ames, B. (2002). Families’ Use of Religion/Spirituality as a Psychosocial Resource. Holistic Nursing Practice. 17(1):61-76. (October).

McEvoy, M. (2003). Culture and Spirituality as an Integrated Concept in Pediatric Care. MCN. The American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing. 28(1):39-43. (January-February).

McEvoy, M. (2000). An Added Dimension to the Pediatric Health Maintenance Visit: The Spiritual History. Journal of Pediatric Health Care. 14:216-220.

McSherry,W. and Smith, J. (2007). How Do Children Express their Spiritual Needs? Paediatric Nursing. 19(3):17-20.

Mickalide, A. (1986). Children’s Understanding of Health and Illness: Implication for Health Promotion. Health Values. 10:5-21.

Murray, R. and Zentner, J. (1989). Nursing Concepts for Health Promotion. London: Prentice-Hall.

Pehler, S-R. (1997). Children’s Spiritual Response: Validation of the Nursing Diagnosis Spiritual Distress. Nursing Diagnosis. 8(2):55-66. (April-June).

Robinson, M., Thiel, M., Backus, M., and Meyer, E. (2006). Matters of Spirituality at the End of Life in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit. Pediatrics. 118(3):e719-e729. (September).

Smith, J. and McSherry, W. (2004). Spirituality and Child Development: A Concept Analysis. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 45(3):307-315.

Springer, K. and Ruckel, J. (1992). Early Beliefs About the Cause of Illness: Evidence Against Immanent Justice. Cognitive Development. 7:429-443.

References and Resources for Spiritual Pain and Distress

Anandarajah, G. and Hight, E. (2001). Spirituality and Medical Practice: Using the HOPE Questions as a Practical Tool for Spiritual Assessment. American Family Physician. 63:81-89.

American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Bioethics and Committee on Hospital Care. (2000). Palliative Care for Children. Pediatrics. 106:351-357.

American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Bioethics. (1997). Religious Objections to Medical Care. Pediatrics. 99(2):279-281. (February).

Andrews, M. and Boyle, J. (1995). Transcultural Concepts in Nursing Care. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott.

Balzer, Ned. (2003). When You Don’t Believe in a God. In Horchler, J. and Rice, R. (ed.) SUID and Infant Death Survival Guide. Cheverly, MD:SUID Educational Services. (Pages 78-81).

Bezold, Annmarie, LCSW Certified Trauma Specialist Consultant and Coordinator, Grief Program, Fairfax County Community Services Board, Virginia. Personal Communication. August 31, 2007.

Carson, V. (ed.). (1989a). Spiritual Dimensions of Nursing Practice. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co.

Carson, V. (1989b). Spiritual Developments Across the Life Span. In Carson, V. (Ed.). Spiritual Dimensions of Nursing Practice. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co.

City of Hope Pain & Palliative Care Resource Center.

Elizabeth M. Boggs Center on Developmental Disabilities. (2008). Autism and Faith: A Journey into Community.

Fadiman, A. (1997). The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down: A Hmong Child, Her American Doctors, and the Collision of Two Cultures. New York:Noonday Press.

Good, M-J., Brodwin, P., Good, B., and Kleinman, A. (1994). Pain as Human Experience: An Anthropological Perspective. Berkeley:University of California Press.

Himebauch, A., Arnold, M., and May, C. (2005). Fast Fact and Concept # 138: Grief in Chldren and Developmental Concepts of Death. End-of-Life Physician Education Resource Center.

Horchler, J. and Rice, R. (ed.) (2003). SUID and Infant Death Survival Guide. Cheverly, MD:SUID Educational Services.

Larson, D., Sawyers, J., and McCullough, M. (1997). Scientific Research on Spirituality and Health: A Consensus Report. Rockville,MD:National Institute for Healthcare Research.

Lynch, E. and Hanson, M. (Eds.) 1998). Developing Cross-cultural Competence: A guide for Working with Young Children and Their Families. Baltimore:Brookes.

Mako, C., Galek, K., and Poppito, S. (2006). Spiritual Pain Among Patients with Advanced Cancer in Palliative Care. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 9(5):1106-1113.

Meert, K., Thurston, C., and Briller, S. (2005). The Spiritual Needs of Parents at the Time of their Child’s Death in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit and During Bereavement: A Qualitative Study. Pediatric Critical Care Medicine. 6(4):420-427. (July).

Mersky, H., and Bogduk, N. (1994). Classification of Chronic Pain: Descriptions of Chronic Pain Syndromes and Definitions of Pain Terms. Seattle, WA: International Association for the Study of Pain.

Metcalf, P. and Huntington, R. (1991). Celebrations of Death: The Anthropology of Mortuary Ritual. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Morris, David. (1993). The Culture of Pain. Berkeley: University of California Press.

NANDA. (1994) Nursing Diagnoses: Definitions and Classification. Philadelphia.

Pargament, K. et al. (2002). Red Flags and Religious Coping: Identifying Some Religious Warning Signs Among People in Crisis. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 54:77-89.

Pehler, S-R. (1997). Children’s Spiritual Response: Validation of the Nursing Diagnosis Spiritual Distress. Nursing Diagnosis. 8(2):55-66. (April-June).

Pendleton, S. et al. (2002). Religious/Spiritual Coping in Childhood Cystic Fibrosis: A Qualitative Study. Pediatrics. 109(1):E8.

Raingruber, B. and Milstein, J. (2007). Searching for Circles of Meaning and Using Spiritual Experiences to Help Parents of Infants with Life-threatening Illness Cope. Journal of Holistic Nursing. 25(1):34-49; Discussion 50-51. (March).

Rippentrop, A. et al. (2005). The Relationship Between Religion/Spirituality and Physical Health, Mental Health, and Pain in a Chronic Pain Population. Pain. 116:311-321.

Robinson, M., Thiel, M., Backus, M., and Meyer, E. (2006). Matters of Spirituality at the End of Life in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit. Pediatrics. 118(3):e719-e729. (September).

Seligman, M. and Darling, R. (2007). Ordinary Families, Special Children: A Systems Approach to Childhood Disability. New York:Guilford Press.

Speraw, S. (2006). Spiritual Experiences of Parents and Caregivers Who Have Children with Disabilities or Special Needs. Issues in Mental Health Nursing. 27(2):213-30. (February-March.)

Stoll, R. (1989). The Essence of Spirituality. In Carson, V. (Ed.). Spiritual Dimensions of Nursing Practice. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co.

Stuber, M. and Houskamp, B. (2004). Spirituality in Children Confronting Death. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 13(1):127-136, viii. (January).

References and Resources for Assessment of Spirituality and Religion

Anandarajah, G. and Hight, E. (2001). Spirituality and Medical Practice: Using the HOPE Questions as a Practical Tool for Spiritual Assessment. American Family Physician. 63:81-89.

Ambuel, B. (2000). Fast Fact and Concept #019: Taking a Spiritual History. End-of-Life Physician Education Resource Center.

Astrow, A., Pulchalski, C., and Sulmasy, D. (2001). Religion, Spirituality, and Health Care: Social, Ethical, and Practical Considerations. American Journal of Medicine. 110:283-287.

Carson, V. (Ed.). (1989a). Spiritual Dimensions of Nursing Practice. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co.

City of Hope Pain & Palliative Care Resource Center

George Washington University Institute for Spirituality and Health

Hart, A. et al. (2003). Hospice Patients’ Attitudes Regarding Spiritual Discussions with Their Doctors. American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care. 20(2):135-139. (March-April).

Hill, P. and Hood, R. (Eds.). (1999). Measures of Religiosity. Birmingham, AL: Religious Education Press.

Hill, P. and Parlament, K. (2003). Advances in the Conceptualization and Measurement of Religion and Spirituality. American Psychologist. 58:64-74.

Hodge, D. (2006). A Template for Spiritual Assessment: A Review of the JCAHO Requirements and Guidelines for Implementation. Social Work. 51(4):317-326.

Hodge, D. (2005a). Spiritual Lifemaps: A Client-centered Pictorial Instrument for Spiritual Assessment, Planning, and Intervention. Social Work. 50(1):77-87. (January).

Hodge, D. (2005b). Spiritual Ecograms: A New Assessment Instrument for Identifying Clients' Spiritual Strengths in Space and Across Time. Families in Society. 86(2):287-296.

Hodge, D. (2003). Spiritual Assessment: A Handbook for Helping Professionals. Botsford, CT: NACSW Press.

Hodge, D. (2001). Spiritual Assessment: A Review of Major Qualitative Methods and a New Framework for Assessing Spirituality. Social Work. 46:203-214.

Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO). Spiritual Assessment.

Koenig, H. (2004). Religion, Spirituality, and Medicine: Research Findings and Implications for Clinical Practice. Southern Medical Journal. 97(12)1194-1200.

Kreps, Gary and Kunimoto, E. (1994). Effective Communication in Multicultural Health Care Settings. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

McBride, J., Pilkington, L., and Arthur, G. (1998). Development of Brief Pictorial Instruments for Assessing Spirituality in Primary Care. Journal of Ambulatory Care Management. 21(4):53-61. (October).

McEvoy, M. (2000). An Added Dimension to the Pediatric Health Maintenance Visit: The Spiritual History. Journal of Pediatric Health Care. 14:216-220.

Maugans, T.A. (1996). The SPIRITual History. Archives of Family Medicine. 5:11-16.

Nelson-Becker, H., Nakashima, M., Canda, E. (2007). Spiritual Assessment in Aging: A Framework for Clinicians. Journal of Gerontological Social Work. 48(3/4):331-347.

Post, S., Puchalski, C., Larson, D. (2000). Physicians and Patient Spirituality: Professional Boundaries, Competency, and Ethics. Annals of Internal Medicine. 132(7): 578-583. (April 4).

Robinson, M., Thiel, M., Backus, M., and Meyer, E. (2006). Matters of Spirituality at the End of Life in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit. Pediatrics. 118(3):e719-e729. (September).

Sulmasy, D. (2002). A Biopsychosocial-Spiritual Model for the Care of Patients at the End of Life. The Gerontologist. 42, Special Issue III, 24-33.

Teno, J. (ed.) Center for Gerontology and Health Care Research, Brown University. TIME: Toolkit of Instruments to Measure End-of Life Care (Spirituality)

References and Resources for Professional Training and Development

American Psychiatric Association. (2006). Religious/Spiritual Commitments and Psychiatric Practice: A Resource Document. (December).

Association of American Medical Colleges. (1999). Report III: Contemporary Issues in Medicine: Communication on Medicine. Medical School Objectives Project. (October).

Brokaw, J., Tunnicliff,G., Raess,B., and Saxon, D. (2002). The Teaching of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in U.S. Medical Schools: A Survey of Course Directors. Academic Medicine. 77:876-881.

Canda, E. and Furman, L. (1999). Spiritual Diversity in Social Work Practice. New York:Free Press.

Curlin, FA et al. (2007). The Relationship Between Psychiatry and Religion Among U.S. Physicians. Psychiatric Services. 58(9):1193-1198. (September).

Fortin, A. and Barnett, K. (2004). Medical School Curricula in Spirituality and Medicine. Journal of the American Medical Association. 291(23):2883. (June 16).

Green, M. (2001). Identifying, Appraising, and Implementing Medical Education Curricula: A Guide for Medical Educators. Annals of Internal Medicine. 135(10): 889-896.

Heffern, R. (2001). Loyola Chicago Trains Spiritually Sensitive Helpers: Spirituality in Social Work and Nursing. National Catholic Reporter. (September 28).

Lukoff, D. DSM-IV Religious and Spiritual Problems. (Online Course)

McCormick, T. University of Washington, School of Medicine. Ethics in Medicine. Spirituality and Medicine.

Prest, L., Russel, R., and D’Souza, H. (1999). Spirituality and Religion in Training, Practice, and Personal Development. Journal of Family Therapy. 21:60-77.

Puchalski, C. and Larson, D. (1998). Developing Curricula in Spirituality and Medicine. Academic Medicine. 73:970-974.

Sheridan, M., Wilmer,,C., and Atcheson, L. (1994). Inclusion of Content on Religion and Spirituality in the Social Work Curriculum: A Study of Faculty Views. Journal of Social Work Education. 30:363-376.

Weaver, A. (2006). Reply to Garrison, A. (2006). American Family Physician. 74(10):1684 -1685. (November 15).

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